A global review of ecological fiscal transfers

Ecological fiscal transfers (EFT) transfer public revenue between governments within a country based on ecological indicators. EFT can compensate sub-national governments for the costs of conserving ecosystems and in principle can incentivize greater ecological conservation. We review established EFT in Brazil, Portugal, France, China and India, and emerging or proposed EFT in ten more countries. We analyse common themes related to EFT emergence, design and effects. EFT have grown rapidly from US$0.35 billion yr−1 in 2007 to US$23 billion yr−1 in 2020. We discuss the scope of opportunity to expand EFT to other countries by ‘greening’ intergovernmental fiscal transfers. Relação completa dos autores do artigo: Jonah Busch, Irene Ring , Monique Akullo , Oyut Amarjargal , Maud Borie , Rodrigo Cassola , Annabelle Cruz-Trinidad , Nils Droste , Joko Haryanto , Ulan Kasymov , Nataliia Kotenko , Ariunaa Lkhagvadorj , Felipe Luiz Lima de Paulo , Peter May , Anit Mukherjee , Sonny Mumbunan , Rui Santos , Luca Tacconi , Gracie Verde Selva , Madhu Verma , Xiaoxi Wang , Lu Yu , Kecen Zhou. Contato do autor de correspondência: Jonah Busch (Conservation International, Estados Unidos), e-mail: jonahmbusch@gmail.com
Felipe Luiz Lima de Paulo
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